Peripheral Arterial Disease

Learn about symptoms & treatment of PAD

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Significant Cardiovascular Risk

PAD is associated with substantial morbidity like impairing ability to walk, limb loss & cardiovascular mortality.

Requires Expert Care

PAD patients can benefit from structured PAD care programs with focus on risk management & early medical intervention.

Limb loss & Quality of Life

By controlling risks for PAD early, being on proper medications and exercise programs can avoid surgeries & save limbs.

Newer Treatments Options

With new and potent medications, nearly 95% of patients can avoid the need for surgery including amputations and even stents.

What Causes PAD

Atherosclerosis is most common cause of PAD but other causes are well recognized and need to be kept in mind in suspected PAD patients.

  • Atherosclerosis commonly called as atherosclerotic arterial disease- most common cause of PAD.
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia-non atherosclerotic and non-inflammatory conditions more commonly seen in women
  • Inflammation of arteries mostly called Vasculitis
  • Buerger's Disease, commonly seen in relatively young men with history of smoking.
  • Arterial entrapment more common in calf due to Popliteal arterial entrapment syndrome.
  • Endofibrosis- most commonly seen in competitive runners or bicyclists.

Risk Factors for PAD

Peripheral arterial disease is a multi factorial disease and usually multiple factors come in to play. A few of them can be modified like weight, cholesterol control & smoking. Rest can not be modified like age, race & gender.


  • Increasing age
  • Male gender for younger age group, risk is equal in both genders in older population
  • African American & Hispanic races
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Chronic Kidney disease

Management of PAD without Surgery

Nearly 90% of PAD patients can be stabilized avoiding the need for surgery or intervention, if appropriate care is started early and patient follows the medical instructions and is on appropriate medications

  • Smoke cessation
  • Blood glucose control
  • Cholesterol Control- with newer stronger cholesterol medications.
  • Anti-platelet medications like Aspirin or Clopidogrel
  • Blood pressure control
  • Weight management
  • Supervised walking therapy
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitors- vasodilators like Cilostazol.